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The primacy of Peter, also known as Petrine primacy (from Latin: Petrus, "Peter"), is the position of preeminence that is attributed to Saint Peter among the Twelve Apostles.
It is to be distinguished from the primacy of the Bishop of Rome, also known as papal primacy or Roman primacy, whose link with the primacy of Peter is disputed.
Some, but not nearly all, Protestant denominations accept the concept of the primacy of Peter, but believe it was only relevant during the lifetime of Peter.
They do not believe the pope holds any authority over the universal Church.
Indeed, using the supposed transliteration of "כפא", which is found several times in the New Testament, would lose the play of words.
In Catholicism, it is argued that the primacy of Peter is a basis for the primacy of the bishop of Rome over other bishops throughout the Church via the doctrine of Apostolic succession.
Catholics believe that Saint Paul saw Judaism as the type or figure of Christianity: "Now all these things happened to [the Jews] in figure...." attributes to the High Priest the highest jurisdiction in religious matters.
Therefore, it is argued, logic dictates that a supreme head would be necessary in the Christian Church, though the relevance of Biblical law in Christianity is still disputed, see also New Covenant and New Commandment.
While the reasons for disagreement on the nature of the primacy are complex—hinging on matters of doctrine, history, and politics, the debate is often reduced to a discussion of the meaning and translation of the "on this rock" passage: In the Greek text, the new name given is Πέτρος (Petros), and in the second half of the same verse the word translated as "rock" is πέτρα (petra).
His mission will be to keep this faith from every lapse and to strengthen his brothers in it.
"As Roman Catholic scholars now concede, the ancient Christian father Cyprian used it to prove the authority of the bishop—not merely of the Roman bishop, but of every bishop," referring to Maurice Bevenot's work on St. Eastern Catholics agree with the above, but also consider Peter to be representative of all bishops.
In the New Testament, which some call the New Law or "New Greek Testament", reports that Jesus changed Simon's name to Peter.
Elsewhere in Scripture such a name change always denotes some change in status (e.g., Abram to Abraham, Jacob to Israel, and Saul to Paul).