Elucidating nuclear reprogramming mechanisms difficult dating sim

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Nevertheless, it remains important to resolve and define the mechanisms underlying pluripotent stem cells, as that understanding will impact strongly on future medical applications.

The capture of pluripotent stem cells in a dish is bound to several landmark discoveries, from the initial culture and phenotyping of pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells to the recent induction of pluripotency in somatic cells.

Recent studies in the laboratory mouse have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms and key factors regulating the specification of ICM and TE lineages.

At the morula stage, cells choose their fate depending on their position and polarity [].

Re-establishing pluripotency in a somatic cell is a complicated process.

This surface antigen phenotype of human EC cells is similar to that of human ES cells [] showed that blastula cell nuclei retain the genetic information required for pluripotency when injected into enucleated frog oocytes.

This phenomenon was investigated further by Gurdon and Uehlinger [], who demonstrated that even more differentiated intestinal cells were capable of directing development into adult frogs following somatic cell nuclear transfer, albeit at low efficiency (approximately 1%).

This finding opened the way for detailed studies of these peculiar cancers, which may contain a haphazard array of almost any somatic cell type found in the developing embryo [].

The stem cells of these tumours are embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells, which express characteristics, including a developmental potential, similar to those of the inner cell mass (ICM) of the early embryo [].

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